Commercial property is real estate (buildings or land) that is meant
to make a profit through capital gains or rental income. It is also
referred to as income property, investment property, or commercial real
estate. Office buildings, hospitals, hotels, shopping centers, retail
establishments, multifamily housing complexes, farms, warehouses, and
garages are examples of commercial property. For borrowing and tax
purposes, residential property with more than a specific number of units
is considered commercial property in many U.S. states.
Office buildings, warehouses, and retail spaces (such as convenience
stores, “big box” stores, and shopping malls) are examples of structures
utilized for commercial purposes. In metropolitan areas, a commercial
building may have retail on floor 1 and offices on levels 2 through 10.
These buildings can be referred to as multi-use when significant space
is allotted to several purposes. A business must be situated in a
commercial area or an area that is at least partially allocated for
commerce. Local authorities typically enforce stringent laws for
commercial zoning and have the power to identify any zoned area as such.
Commercial property types
Five categories are often used to categorize commercial real estate:
Office buildings: This group comprises downtown skyscrapers, tiny
professional office buildings, single-tenant properties, and all in
Retail shops/restaurants: This category includes highway frontage pad
sites, single-tenant retail buildings, inline multi-tenant retail,
lifestyle centers that combine indoor and outdoor shopping, “power
centers” with major anchor tenants like PetSmart, OfficeMax, and Best
Buy, as well as shopping malls that typically contain a number of indoor
Multifamily: This group comprises high-rise residential buildings and
apartment complexes. Anything bigger than a fourplex is often
categorized as commercial real estate.
property: Investment properties on undeveloped, undeveloped, rural
property that is slated for development fall under this category.
Alternatively, pad plots, infill land with an urban area, and more.
Industrial: This group include distribution hubs, sizable R&D centers, warehouses, and cold storage facilities.
Other non-residential assets, such as hotel, hospitality, medical,
and self-storage projects, among many others, would fall under the
umbrella term “miscellaneous.”
establishments include truck stops, hotels, motels, public houses,
taverns, restaurants, cafes, dining establishments, stadiums, sports
facilities, amusement parks, movie studios, and theaters.
shopping malls, shops, showrooms, supermarkets, big-box stores, convenience stores, grocery stores, and retail stores
Serviced offices, office structures
Healthcare facilities include clinics, dispensaries, hospitals, and nursing homes.
Multifamily dwellingsbuildings with multiple apartments
educational boot camps for colleges, institutions, and schools
automotive repair businesses, warehouses, machine shops, and industrial factories
fields, orchards, ranches, dairy farms, pig farms, poultry farms, fish farms, barns, stables
Only the first five of these are categorized as commercial
structures. Multifamily apartments can also be considered residential
Cash inflows and outflows, the timing of cash flows, and risk are the fundamental components of an investment. Being able to evaluate these components is essential when offering services to commercial real estate investors.
A graph illustrating the US commercial real estate market’s growth in price.
The money that goes into or comes out of the property, including the initial cost of purchase and any proceeds from sales over the course of the investment, is referred to as cash inflows and outflows. A real estate fund is one type of this kind of investment.
Among the cash inflows are the following:
Rent Recovery of Operating Expenses
Charges for services, parking, vending, etc.
earnings from the sale
Tax credits (historical, for example)
Expenses of cash include:
first financial commitment (down payment)
All operational costs and levies
loan repayment (mortgage)
Tenant leasing costs and capital expenditures expenses at sale
To project periods of positive and negative cash flows, it is crucial to understand the timing of cash inflows and outflows. Risk is influenced by the state of the market, the tenancy of the existing tenants, and the possibility that they may extend their contracts annually. It is critical to be able to forecast the likelihood that cash inflows and outflows will occur in the amounts and at the times that are anticipated, as well as the likelihood that there will be unexpected cash flows and the potential amounts of those flows.
In 2018, the United States’ overall commercial property value was estimated to be $6 trillion. The US Commercial Real Estate Index, which is derived weekly from eight economic drivers, gauges the relative strength of the market.
A real estate agent will usually advertise a property for the seller. Property that fits the buyer’s specified criteria is found by buyers’ agents or brokers acting on behalf of buyers. Buyer types can include capital investment firms, acquisitions, private equity firms, owner-users, and individual investors. The buyer or its representatives will conduct a preliminary evaluation of the property’s physical attributes, geographical position, and potential for financial gain (if investing) or suitability for the intended purpose (if owner-user).
In the event that the buyer’s requirements are satisfied, they may indicate their intention to proceed by submitting a letter of intent (LOI). In order to save money on creating legal paperwork should the parties not accept the conditions as written, letters of intent are used to lay out the main parameters of an offer. A purchase and sale agreement (PSA) is formed following the signature of a letter of intent by both parties. Although frequent, a Letter of Intent is not used in every commercial property purchase. A PSA is a formal contract that outlines the terms, conditions, and timetable of the sale between the buyer and seller and is signed by just one interested party. A PSA could be a normal contract like those used in real estate transactions, or it could be a thoroughly negotiated document with unique conditions.
Following the execution of a PSA, the buyer is typically obliged to provide an escrow deposit to a title company office or have it held in escrow by a brokerage. This deposit may be recoverable under specific circumstances. The buyer conducts a more thorough evaluation of the property during the due diligence phase of the deal. Purchase and sale agreements sometimes contain provisions requiring the seller to provide specific details so that the buyer can study and decide whether the parameters of the agreement are still acceptable. Often called “contingencies,” the buyer may be able to renegotiate the terms or end the purchase altogether. A lot of purchase agreements include clauses requiring the buyer to successfully complete certain due diligence tasks and secure mortgage funding. Financial documents for the property, rent rolls, vendor contracts, zoning and legal uses, traffic patterns, physical and environmental conditions, and other pertinent data to the buyer’s acquisition decision as stated in the PSA are examples of common due diligence materials. Buyers may choose to waive conditions in order to increase the appeal of an offer in highly competitive real estate markets. The PSA would often limit the buyer’s time to cancel the contract based on the results of its due diligence examination and require the seller to give it quick access to due diligence information. The buyer typically receives their escrow deposit back if they cancel the deal within the allotted time for due diligence. The escrow deposit becomes non-refundable if the buyer hasn’t terminated the agreement in accordance with the PSA provisions. If the buyer doesn’t complete the acquisition, the escrow deposit monies will be transferred to the seller as a failure-to-close charge. After exchanging money and title, the parties will continue to seal the deal.
Post-closing procedures, such as informing tenants of an ownership change, transferring vendor relationships, and providing pertinent data to the asset management team, may start as soon as a deal closes.
|Address:||148 PINE ST, COLLINGWOOD|
|Area:||Southern Georgian Bay, Collingwood (CO), Collingwood Central (CC)|
|Lot Size:||29.50 X 165`|
Prime Location! Commercially Zoned C-1 in the Heritage District, on Pine Street at Third St, just steps from restaurants, shops & businesses. The 2091 sqft house has lots of potential, currently used as a duplex, 2 bedrooms & 2 bathrooms on the main floor, 3 bedrooms 1 bathroom on the second being sold `As Is`. The 2 story red brick Heritage home circa 1900s, has original veranda, stained glass window and wood shingles with a carving decorates the front gable. Main floor has gas forced air heat, 9-4` ceilings, wood floors upstairs. Contact for zoning, parking details and to view the property
|Sale/lease:||Building and Land||Heating:||Baseboard, Electric, Forced Air, Natural Gas|
|Site Influences:||Landscaped, Level, Public Parking, Shopping Nearby, Treed|
|Type||Net Rental Area||Rent Rate||Occupant||Lease Expiry|
|# Residential Units||934 SF||$750||MO-TO-MO|
|# Residential Units||1150 SF||$750||MO-TO-MO|
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